Thursday, March 12, 2020

Diversity of the world’s population The WritePass Journal

Diversity of the world’s population Introduction Diversity of the world’s population IntroductionTranscultural NursingThe Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory by Madeleine LeiningerThe Sunrise EnablerThe Ethno-nursing MethodHolistic Nursing PracticeThe Theory of Environmental Adaptation by Florence NightingaleTranscultural Nursing vs. Holistic Nursing PracticeConclusionRelated Introduction Diversity of the world’s population has reached a point where it is vital to address and more importantly to understand, the ever growing challenge that transcultural nursing poses to the nursing profession. Addressing this issue avoids discrimination and promotes equality within holistic nursing practice in order to meet patients’ needs. Health care professionals should be qualified to deliver, on a daily basis, proficient care and sensitive skilled communication to culturally different individuals (Maier-Lorentz, 2008). To exercise professional nursing in a conceptual way holistic nursing care focuses on physical, emotional, social, environmental and spiritual aspects as well as on the idea that any individual involved in treatment care should be treated as a whole and with dignity (Dossey Guzzetta, 2005). One of the areas to be discussed is Transcultural Nursing and Leininger’s Transcultural Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality and its research enablers: the Sunrise Enabler and the Ethnonursing Method. Another area will be Holistic Nursing Practice and Nightingale’s Nursing Theory of Environmental Adaptation as well as the liaison between Transcultural Nursing and Holistic Nursing Practice. Nightingale’s theory has been chosen over others because she was the first to acknowledge nurses’ work in a theoretical framework and also because she was considered to be the mother of nursing practices (Ellis, 2008). The development of culture care theory introduced health care professionals into a new nursing dimension formed by issues such as culture background, spirituality, environment and others that demonstrated how culture and health care are linked (Leininger, 2002a). Holistic Nursing Practice encourages active communication and reciprocal understanding, underlines the exercise of physiological and psychosocial awareness, it is based on logical thinking and supports values such as autonomy and patient wishes and tendencies (MacKinnon, 2010). Transcultural Nursing Transcultural nursing may be defined as a method to contrast and observe how individuals view health care, biased by their culture background. The principles of practising transcultural nursing are to provide complete nursing care to individuals or groups by treating them with respect and taking into account their cultural factors. It is all about nursing practice applied to cultural values and limitations (Leininger, 1991). Definitions of transcultural nursing incorporate many factors that shape the individual’s cultural orientation. These include are age, sexual orientation and financial aspects. It has been suggested that by ignoring these culture background factors, health care professionals do not achieve enough cultural experience to be incorporated in holistic nursing practice (Barnes et al. 2000). This absence might lead to unsafe nursing care and both dissatisfied patients and professionals (Curren, 2006 cited in Leininger McFarland, 2006, pp.159-160). To promote transcultural nursing care, Narayan (2001) felt that there are four crucial attitudes to assume caring, empathy, openness and flexibility. This shows the patients a cultural understanding, appreciation, consideration and willingness from health care professionals that are based on individual care. Cultural education and the creation of culturally competent care professionals are one of the biggest challenges yet to tackle worldwide. For instance, in America, as the migrant population increases notably so it does the need for reducing inequalities and barriers such as language. Maier-Lorentz (2008) firmly understood that such a need could be met by the targeting of bilingual health care professionals coming from different backgrounds. Moreover, she suggested that in order to provide culturally competent nursing care, some knowledge of non-vocal communication signs could be of great value, as it is in eye contact, touch, silence, space and distance, and health care habits. Green-Hernandez (2004) recommended that as a step towards multicultural competency, professionals that need to deal with farmers should familiarize themselves with their specific customs such as using animal medication for their own conditions as a consequence of living far away from the care institutions. With the purpose of understanding culture, Andrews Boyle (1997) gave out diverse illustrations. For example, they suggested that by understanding a people’s proverbs, professionals may grasp knowledge of the cultural values shared by that population. The authors also stressed the importance of culture knowledge when coming across two different ways to view stealing. For one culture it may not be acceptable whereas for another one, e.g. gipsy people, it may be ok, as long as it is coming from a better-off person. Furthermore, they also found, through researchers, that different cultures may think that by being a demanding patient, the treatment they receive may improve. Riley (2004) reported that a foremost test for nurses in an ethnically different society is communication. Not just words but also tone and volume form spoken communication which in diverse cultures differs greatly. For example, Thai people are regarded as not talking too much as they believe it is a sign of idiocy whereas Cuban people are happy with talking vociferously. He also pointed out that Europeans are not afraid of talking about emotions whereas Asians are hesitant to do so. With regards to communication without words Riley (2004) explained that eye contact is not always expected. For instances, in Native America and Asian cultures it is offensive and among Muslim Arab women it is allowed only to their husbands. Therefore, he identified the importance for healthcare professionals to be culturally aware. Phillimore (2011) explored the challenge of provision of diversity needs in the UK based on studies done on health care service provision to new migrants, during 2007/08 in Birmingham. She stated that with political forces wanting to reduce welfare support for new migrants, such provision becomes quite a challenge. She also believed that, in the long run, this disregarding of health care needs will lead to further issues for the health care system that otherwise could be avoided by just providing what is needed now: cultural and language services and health support. It was also suggested that in today’s political climate offering of ethnically specific provision by the community and for the community, results in the local needs not being met, as the existing GP systems are already overstretched. She concluded that a number of migrants are condemned to an unwelcoming future since UK seems to embrace a tendency of anti-migrant sentiment and a move to community institution instead of multicultural provision (Phillimore, 2011). The Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory by Madeleine Leininger In the 1950’s Madeleine Leininger, a nurse-anthropologist, realised that nursing practice was requiring a theory to allow people to transform nursing into a more advanced and beneficial discipline that challenges nurses to open up to cultural variety and universality (Leininger, 2006). This was developed as a response to the demand for multicultural care which was immense and yet incomplete as many healthcare systems did not consider the need for bringing together culture and nursing care (Giger Davidhizar, 2008). The culture care diversity and universality theory developed by Leininger in 1991 (Leininger, 2002a) is unique in that it focuses on competent care, can be used upon any culture and is based not only on individuals but groups and families too. The theory addresses the importance of a consistent cultural competence instrument to acquire cultural awareness through a constant learning attitude and approval towards human differences and rights by health care professionals (Burford, 2001, cited in Baxter, 2001, pp. 202-203). Leininger (2002a) insisted on the importance of transcultural knowledge as a tool to avoid human acts such as the event of September 11, 2001. She then proposed the culture care theory as the most holistic approach to gradually transform the health system. This much needed transformation requires understanding of individuals in ways that identify and respect their cultural background and will lead us to understand such transcultural dismay. The theory was used in a study among Hispanic home care patients in the US, 2007, in order to identify cultural needs. As a result, care delivery improved in some areas and there was a suggestion describing the use of the model as a tool to reduce costs in the health care system (Woerner et al. 2009). Leininger’s theory applies not only to races from different backgrounds but also to today’s controversial groups such as transgendered people, disabled people , the youth, poverty and the homeless that may pose a certain degree of difficulty of understanding to healthcare professionals. There is also an agreement that, thanks to Leininger’s culture care theory, the nursing profession today knows how to allow for culture when looking after individuals and has a widely spread   caring philosophy in hospitals (Clarke et al. 2009). For this model to assist the health care professional to understand factors as important as management and policies, as well as being able to reflect on their decisions and actions, Leininger designed two tool assessments, The Sunrise Enabler and the Ethno Nursing research method, which are based on monitoring treatment care on a daily basis (Hubbert, 2006, cited in Leininger McFarland, 2006, pp. 354-356). The sunrise enabler focuses mainly on total life ways and caring factors influencing health and well-being, disabilities and death. It also identifies features influenced by the patient’s cultural background whereas ethnonursing finds ways in which multicultural care could be better. In doing so, the reflected culture becomes part of the holistic nursing practice (Leininger, 2006). The Sunrise Enabler The Sunrise Enabler is used as an assessment tool to enable multidisciplinary teams to deliver suitable and competent cultural assessments that impede intolerance and stereotype behaviour. This is to supply the healthcare system with a guide to cultural vicinities ranging from religious beliefs to economic factors (Giger Davidhizar, 2008). Wherever a healthcare professional starts the model either from the top or from the bottom, the most important feature is to listen to the individuals, trying to grasp ideas and concepts rather than enforcing them (Leininger, 2002a). Healthcare professionals struggled to understand the meaning of factors influencing the care practice so crucial when applying the culture care theory. Such factors as culture beliefs, environment and religion were to be included in the nursing care, therefore Leininger (1997) built the Sunrise Enabler to illustrate such aspects. The Ethno-nursing Method This method was developed to fit the purposes of qualitative research methods. It is a systematic method for studying multiple cultures and care factors within a familiar environment of people and to focus on the interrelationships of care and culture to arrive at the goal of culturally congruent care. Ethnonursing is a particular research method developed by Leininger to inspect the theory. It was developed to allow health care professionals to discover new ways of helping different cultural groups distinguish features of nursing care (Leininger, 2006). Leininger (2006, p.6) stated that the ethnonursing method â€Å"†¦was new and unknown in nursing and was different from other qualitative methods including ethnography†. Holistic Nursing Practice The exercise of modern nursing is based on the view of holism that underlines the individual’s wholeness. Healing viewed as an indication of nursing practice that treats people as whole, developed in the late 20th and early 21st century into a popular subject in nursing in order to clarify the meaning of wholeness and holism. As a result, alternative therapies surfaced as approaches of practice in holistic nursing (Locsin, 2002). The definition of holistic came into effect in the 20th century. Then the word holism included the physical, emotional, mental, social, cultural, and spiritual view. This view of holism was envisioned by Florence Nightingale who is seen today as an example to follow, although many of her studies are not used in today’s nursing practice (Beck, 2010). â€Å"Holistic nursing care embraces the mind, body and spirit of the patient, in a culture that supports a therapeutic nurse/patient relationship, resulting in wholeness, harmony and healing. Holistic care is patient led and patient focused in order to provide individualised care, thereby, caring for the patient as a whole person rather than in fragmented parts† (McEvoy Duffy, 2008, Vol.8, p. 418). Furthermore, it addressed the expansion of multidisciplinary and collaborative teams as a way to applying holistic care into practice and asserted that the practice of holistic care by health professionals should avoid intrusion and, when really needed, as it is the case of unconscious patients, should use skills that include aspects such as consideration, disciplined criticism and liability in order to exercise nursing in a holistic approach (McEvoy Duffy, 2008). Since individuals from different culture backgrounds may appreciate holistic nursing practice and care choices in different ways so is the healthcare provided in different ways (Locsin, 2001). It may also be the case that some individuals may feel embarrassed to mention alternative remedies used in the past, therefore the assessment should be supportive rather than disapproving (Maddalena, 2009). Pearcey (2007) ran a study on clinical practices amongst student nurses to draw on a few key points related to holistic nursing practice. It was found that the notion of holistic care was not clear within nursing practice. Some students claimed not to know the right meaning of holistic nursing practice and also claimed that tasks and routines are what nursing is all about. The study showed an evident lack of professionalism and knowledge amongst care professionals as well as a huge gap between what is taught and what is really applied at work. The author concluded that there is a real risk of inconsistency within the profession. Within the practice of holistic care there has been lately a huge influence of alternative or complementary medicine which care experts have tried to professionalise by setting certain values to be met. A study amongst nurses and midwives accomplished in England, 2008, revealed this but also the lack of initiative from the NHS to incorporate such practices, even though it was demonstrated that a huge variety of them were successfully applied on patients where biomedicine seemed not to work. Such practices included reflexology, aromatherapy, acupuncture and massage that actually underlined biomedicine rather than substituted (Cant et al. 2011). Whilst carrying out an interview on medical students in the UK, a student suggested that it is actually a catch-22-situation when looking after patients from diverse races as they have diverse predominance of whatever conditions that eventually will require different treatment, a world apart from what is being taught in medical schools with regards to treating everyone in the same way (Roberts et al. 2008). A quick look to Harrison (2008) for a concluding comment on multicultural nursing in relation to holistic care, offers us this brief view: a Western health care organism that has not managed to treat minority communities in a holistic manner is a system that claims to care for one and all identically. The Theory of Environmental Adaptation by Florence Nightingale According to Nightingale’s Theory of Environmental Adaptation, an individual’s health is improved by looking after the surrounding environment. It goes further than this and asks for the environment to be operated by the health care professionals as an approach to healing (Howett et al.   2010). Florence Nightingale defined nursing as â€Å"†¦the act of utilising the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery† (Funnell et al. 2009). She determined that the deficiency of factors such as uncontaminated air, clean water, sanitation, hygiene and sunlight is unhealthy to the human being. Furthermore, she reasoned that temperature, environment and nutrition affect the patient (Kozier, et al. 2008). This theory of nursing includes inspection, recognition of environment changes and their execution and supporting the patient health care by allowing the environment to benefit the patient (Neils, 2010). Selanders (2010) reviewed and compared this theory’s aspects with modern day practice and reported that Nightingale’s concept, such as air, light, noise and cleanliness is equal to today’s concept of physical environment; health recommendations to psychological environment; food to nutritional status and observation to nursing management. The author also estimated that the theory has been used in several qualitative works and some studies on the childbirth process. Transcultural Nursing vs. Holistic Nursing Practice According to Leininger (2002b) patients are not provided full holistic care by health professionals. Factors such as kinship, religion, environment and culture are largely missing. For that reason, care professionals should avoid being judgmental when delivering holistic care and rather provide an all-inclusive care that respects the individual’s cultural background (Maddalena, 2009). As a student nurse, it is vital to value the development of cultural awareness and competency within the profession in order to encourage and address all stages of holistic nursing practice as it is meaningful to today’s multicultural society. Leininger (1997) also claimed that essential practice is needed to create a regulation of multicultural nursing that could be of use to much ignored cultures. For example, acute medical treatment, medication, and patient fulfilment can be improved by understanding care beliefs when bringing in nursing care which, in turn, could save the health care system financially and also have a desired positive outcome on patients (Woerner et al. 2009). Individuals or groups may clash with health professionals if they are not showing respect for each other’s cultural beliefs resulting in poor treatment and patients losing hope in the health care system. Hogg (2010a) also underpinned this understanding as crucial to delivering accurate holistic nursing practice. However, not only patients may lose faith in the system. Hogg (2010b) also affirmed that nurses from black and minority ethnic have suffered, at some point, racial harassment as well as lack of opportunities according to their numbers in the nursing profession. As holistic nursing practice centres on recognition of patients’ rights and choices (Potter, 2005 cited in Dossey et al. 2005, p.347), it is subsequently supporting the meaning behind multicultural care. The association of both precepts confirms an ongoing engagement to pursue equality and diversity as promoted by the Nursing Midwifery Council (2008). â€Å"Inherent in nursing is respect for human rights, including cultural rights, the right to life and choice, to dignity and to be treated with respect. Nursing care is respectful of and unrestricted by considerations of age, colour, creed, culture, disability or illness, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, politics, race or social status† (The International Council for Nurses, 2005). When assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating a patient’s needs as to medication, health professionals should take into account culture’s physiologic traits, as it can seriously impact the treatment. For instances, due to genetics, for one patient a normal given dose may develop a reaction whereas for another it may not work at all (Anon, 2005). Conclusion It is obvious that cultural competency is a must when performing holistic nursing practice, in order to deliver a responsive and high quality care system. It is therefore recommended that specific cultural training should be given to all health care professionals so as to not overlook the great multi-cultural society we all are in. As society becomes more diverse, health care professionals should expand guiding principles that sponsor cultural skills as a way to deliver enhanced holistic healthcare. By carrying out this essay, the author realises the significance of treating people in a holistic way and not making assumptions just because they are from different cultures. This is something that seems yet not to be well implemented in my workplace (NHS since 2007). The author will, from now on, be more aware of his practice when caring for individuals from different culture backgrounds. It can be considered that nursing as a profession is also an example of human culture so indispensable for a in peak condition community, as seen looking through the theories of nursing and its tools presented in this paper, which if not recognized may affect the execution of holistic practice and its results, i.e. it is a profession whose culture needs to be elastic if it is to  fulfill  its function.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Can Humans and Animals Live in Harmony Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Can Humans and Animals Live in Harmony - Essay Example Man’s desire to advance his living standards has had devastating effects on the survival of diverse animals through clearing their natural habitats, thus exposing them to adverse weather conditions. As such, this manuscript will mull over the issue of speciesism, thereby providing mitigation measures on this predicament. Man has continually affected the animals’ natural territory in various ways since time immemorial. Additionally, man has incessantly discriminated against animals through various exploitative activities. Experts refer to this as speciesism, and this remains to be a key challenge to him (Beirne 7). For instance, his activities in deforestation, owing to his desire in increasing his settlement has left various animal species homeless, thus leaving them vulnerable to extinction. In the earlier days before the onset of civilization, animals and man lived harmoniously, with the animals dwelling in their apt natural environments. However, as he progressed with civilization, man opted to enlarge his habitat by clearing extensive tracts of forests. Moreover, as humans increased in population, they continued to deforest the planet, thereby exposing diverse animals to the adverse weather conditions. Besides, man exploits various animals in his endeavor to satisfy his needs. For instance, man’s unfulfilled desire for food compels him to kill various animals. Additionally, he utilizes various animal products for other purposes that comprise clothing and other adornments, and medicine manufacture. This has occurred uncontrolled, until he realized of the looming danger of the extinction of various animal species (Beirne 8). This compelled humans into attempt to conserve animals, particularly the endangered ones. In addition, the industrialization era led to the emission of numerous hazardous materials. As a result, many animals, including the aquatic ones died and drastically reduced in population. Furthermore, emission of various gaseous wastes has torn down a significant part of the ozone layer, thereby leaving the animals susceptible to global warming. Moreover, various improvements in technology have significant impacts on the survival of animals. Man has created sophisti cated weapons, in his endeavor to boost his supremacy and military capability. Furthermore, man tests these weapons in vast lands, which are the dwellings of various animals. This happens in many nations, leading to deforestation and death of numerous animal species. Besides, man tests nearly all of his scientific inventions on animals (Beirne 7). Moreover, man’s attempt to control some annoying animals has proved fatal to other animals. For example, the application of insecticides to manage pests often leads to the death of other animals, including the aquatic life. Besides, man has domesticated many animals in his endeavor to satisfy his unrelenting needs, thereby leading to the animals’ alteration in biological structure. Humans also involve themselves in the transportation of various animals from their natural habitats to other habitats. This has most often led to the death of several animals, since they are not adapted to these new environments. Moreover, human de velopment in biotechnology has devastating effects on animals. This results from the fact that man alters the animals’ genetic order, leading to mutations. Moreover, man has crossed various animals, leading to the formation of many sterile breeds of

Saturday, February 8, 2020

First Solar Turns Sunshine into Profits Case Study

First Solar Turns Sunshine into Profits - Case Study Example Key Marketing Issues As a new entrant to some of Europe’s and North America’s markets, First Solar has some crucial marketing issues to consider. Three of these key marketing issues can be identified as: Identification of marketing forces that would be of greatest advantage to the entry that the company is seeking to undertake Identification of key market competitors and how to develop long term competitive advantages over these competitors How to integrate the advantages of technology into the marketing strategy of the company; so as to have the full benefit of the paradigm shift being created with advanced technology. 1 Which marketing environment forces are likely to have the greatest impact on First Solar? The generalized marketing environmental forces that are likely to affect the competition that First Solar brings on board has to do with external forces that generally inform the decision making cycle of consumers (Marshall, 2008). By this, reference is being made to such factors or forces as economic situation and environmental impacts. First, it would be noted that First solar is operating in a globalised market that is fast becoming concerned with the need to raising market product and service that are highly affordable. This is because of the increasing hardship that the global economy seem to be recording. Experts believe that there continues to be economic hardships among most consumers of energy products as an auxiliary effect of the global economic crunch that was experienced some few years back (The Gleaner, 2008). Because of this, consumers and clients of various products and services are always looking for value for money. With this situation in mind, there is certainly going to be an environmental phenomenon whereby buyers are going to opt for First Solar’s line of product as they are comparatively cheaper to existing sources of energy such as non-renewable energy. Again, there is an environmental impact that is largely go ing to impact on First Solar in a positive way. 2 What types of organizations are most likely to exert the strongest competitive forces on First Solar? Energy companies that introduce products that have alternative resource raw material are likely to face strong competitive force from existing competitors who use the alternative resource raw materials (Baxter, 2005). There is therefore going to be the threat of substitute products or services. In the case of First Solar, it would be realized that their major resource raw material is the use of solar energy. Meanwhile, there are alternative sources of resource raw materials in the renewable energy production industry. Dominant among these resource raw materials is the use of wind energy. Therefore, there is going to be a competitive force from existing competitors who are into the production of wind based renewable energy. Secondly, new entrants have always acted as major competitive forces to existing competitive who might have had long history of doing business such as First Solar (Marshall, 2008). This is because new entrants have a number of factors that pull consumers to them. For instance consumers who are on existing companies would like to compare service and product quality and so may opt for new entrants for a while. Again, new entrants come in with new sources of capital and so often have an economic advantage (Brown, Steven and. Sauder, 2008).

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Skype vs AT&T Essay Example for Free

Skype vs ATT Essay 1) What are the dominant economic characteristics of the VoIP Industry? Public switch telephone networks (PSTN) charge based on minutes whereas Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) charges based on data usage. VoIP services charge a flat fee and Skype actually offers free talk between Skype users. VoIP is likely to grow significantly, taking away from PTSN’s market. VoIP is also cheap to operate as the infrastructure is already there. VoIP is also considered part of the information service industry and not the telecommunication service industry giving it an advantage politically against PTSN. 2) What does the Five Forces Model reveal about the profitability of the VoIP industry? Threat of New Entrants: The threat of new entrants is high in this market. Companies like Google, Microsoft and AOL are planning to compete in the VoIP market. Threat of Substitutes: Substitute for VoIP is low. Bargaining power of Buyers: The bargaining power is moderate because of the simplicity of switching to other companies. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: The bargaining power is weak/limited because VoIP providers are widespread. Rivalry Between Existing Firms: Rivalry between firms is very high because switching costs are low and there is a lack of differentiation. 3) What are the Driving Forces in the industry? The Driving Forces in the industry are consumers’ eagerness for easy access to communication via the internet as well as the low cost of doing so, powerful substitute for telecommunications, and Skype’s costs are low and the consumer’s cost is low. 4) What are the Key Success Factors in the industry? The Key Success Factors are the ease of use which is the low cost for the users. Lower costs because both voice and data communications can run on a single network. Lastly, the continued development of PC2PC calls, videos, and file sharing. 5) Which type of strategy is Skype pursuing? The strategy that Skype is pursuing is differentiation with low-cost. Skype has easy and effective marketing and less expensive retailing and distribution. Skype to Skype calls lets you communicate between anyone at no  cost. With SkypeOut you can call any landline or mobile phone in the world at comparatively cheap local rates. Also, â€Å"SkypeIn† allows users to be reached by a traditional phone through a regular phone number. 6) What are Skype’s short-term and long-term prospects? Managing their competitors and increasing their revenue. They need to gain larger market share and standout against their competitors. They should also focus sales on a business to business side. They should be making sure that most companies, large and small, are using their application for conference calls.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparing To Kill a Mockingbird with The Man Without a Face :: comparison compare contrast essays

"Fighting Fear and Tradition† Michael Jordan can't single-handedly win a basketball game. Wayne Gretzky can't win hockey games by himself either. It takes a team effort to be successful. That was exactly the case in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird and The Man Without a Face. Even though the time period of To Kill a Mockingbird (1930s) and The Man Without a Face (1960s) were vastly different, everyone needed help, no matter how dangerous. It is no easy task and takes a lot of courage, but it is not impossible, it is achievable.   Although Jem Finch and Charles Norstadt both matured over time, Jem had no real goal except to be a better all-around person, while Charles' goal was to make it to the military school. In Jem's situation, he believed one of the steps to success was to escort his little sister, Scout, back home. He did, but he paid a sacrificial price. A complete surprise attack would have left Jem lifeless like a fish on dry land if Boo Radley, the outcast, had not saved Jem's life. Jem even took the humiliation of apologizing after destroying the garden of Mrs. Dubose because of his lack of self control. Charles Norstadt matured a lot as well and was rewarded with entry to a top military school. He learned to accept the fact that people were no longer supporting him. For example, when McLeod ordered Charles to dig a 3x3x3 hole, he refused to do it. He later learned that this was his geometry lesson. Also, when Charles attempted to shortcut through his essay assignment, he was caught and acco!   rding to McLeod "a high class cheat now". Perhaps, Charles' biggest maturity step was his ability to see the person behind the burnt face of Justin McLeod. The news was biased, and McLeod would not answer, so he was forced to take facts from his personal experiences and interpret them "I didn't teach you the whole summer so you could cheat on this question!" yelled Justin McLeod. Even though both Jem and Charles fought against society's perspective, they both blossomed admirably and were later able to take a stand against a community with large prejudices. Despite the prejudices that both communities had, the community in To Kill a Mockingbird was racist towards Tom Robinson while the media portrayed the negative image of Justin McLeod in The Man Without a Face. Because of Tom Robinson's racial disadvantage in court, Atticus Finch became his lawyer. Atticus felt that everyone, including people of all colors, should be equal. "^ our courts are the great levelers,

Monday, January 13, 2020

Leadership Styles and Their Effect on CEOs Essay

Abstract The purpose of this essay is to analyze, compare, and contrast the leadership styles of two influential CEOs. I have collected information from many internet sources that elaborate on the life, achievements, and misfortunes of Jack Welch and Steve Jobs, and how they overcame their obstacles to become the best CEOs of all time. Leadership Styles and Their Effect on CEOs Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive. Jack Welch and Steve Jobs exemplify the true meaning of what a leader is. Their personality traits of being conscientious open to experiences, extroversion, persistent, and passionate has led them to be the most phenomenal visionary leaders of their time. Jack Welch was the chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. During his duration at GE, he managed to introduce a fresh and innovative leadership style. Welch developed a ranking system that put employees in one of three categories. The top 20 percent were â€Å"stars†, the middle 70 percent were the crucial majority, and the bottom 10 percent were weeded out (Bloomberg, 1998). I admire and strongly agree with Welch’s management approach of making employee’s accountable. If you are hired to perform a job, then expecting results of a certain quality is justified. In addition, I believe that Welch’s passion for productivity and results allowed him to achieve effective performance management within his company. Results create success, and I believe most people tend not to raise their standards high enough if there are not serious repercussions that follow, such as being dismissed for not providing results. Welch most notable achievement was increasing the market value of the General Electric firm. As CEO he increased it from approximately $12 billion when he took over, to a colossal $505 at the time of his retirement (Management, 2012). He managed to make GE the world’s second largest company with a market capitalization that was only exceeded by Microsoft. Through hard work and perseverance Welch managed to attain legendary status of being one of the greatest CEOs of all time. Leadership Styles and Their Effect on CEOs Steve Jobs was an entrepreneur, co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. As the CEO of the company, Jobs covered the development of the iMac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, and on the services side the company’s Apple Retail Stores, iTunes store, and the App store. The success of these products under Jobs provided stable years of financial return, and propelled Apple to become the world’s most valuable publically traded company. The reinvigoration of the company is regarded by commentators as one of the greatest turnarounds in business history (Gallo, 2011). Jobs was a â€Å"one-in-a-billion† innovator with a bulldog mentality. He created a vision and relentlessly drove it into completion. Jobs was a demanding perfectionist who always aspired to position his business and products at the forefront of the technology industry by understanding and setting trends with innovation and style. His reputation was built on being a brutal force and often destroyed staff for their â€Å"bozo† ideas and typically shrugged off his associates suggestions in favor of his own gut instinct. Moreover, he only wanted what he called â€Å"A-players†. Meaning that they had to be brilliant and he insisted that under the threat of being fired, that they would never reveal any of Apple’s secrets inside or outside of the organization (Juarez, 2011). In summary, both Welch and Jobs are extraordinary leaders who demonstrate charismatic and transformational leadership styles. They both have very similar qualities in wanting to produce results. However, they differ because Welch’s management style was cut throat in the sense of firing employees who did not perform. Yet, he was still open to the ideas of managers and employees, and empowered them. On the other hand, Jobs leadership style is regarded as unconventional and being a dictator, who only listens to his own intuition. References Bloomberg, L,P. (6/28/2012). How Jack Welch Runs GE. Business Week. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/1998/23/b3581001.htm Gallo, F. (3/17/2012). What Kind of Leader Was Steve Jobs? Calypso Consulting. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://www.chinacalypso.com/content/what-kind-leader-was-steve-jobs Juarez, A. (10/5/2011). A Different Kind of Leader. Studying Systems for a Humane and Sustainable World. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://saybrook.typepad.com/complexity/2011/10/a-different-kind-of-leader-steve-jobs-1955-2011.html Management Strategies From A Top CEO. (4/16/2010). Retrieved November 20, 2012, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financial-theory/10/manage-business-like-jack-welch.asp#axzz2CpmsLsRK

Sunday, January 5, 2020

War And Peace, By Nancy Scheper Hughes And Philippe

In an age of multiple overlapping crises involving public institutions, war, capital and law, we witness a normalization of violence in everyday life. Violence, as defined by the World Health Organization is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that may result in various harms ranging from psychological harm and deprivation to injury and death. From an anthropological perspective, all dimensions of violence are shaped by cultural and social structures, ideas and ideologies. In their publication titled Violence in War and Peace, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Philippe Bourgois suggest that expressions and repressions of violence are sometimes so deeply embedded in broader socio-cultural structures that they go unrecognized. According to Scheper-Hughes and Bourgois, these misrecognized and often invisible forms of violence-- racism, inequality and exclusion--are often not â€Å"disapproved of† nor seen as â€Å"deviant† behavior but, are â€Å"generally applauded conventional social, economic and political norms† (5). From these larger social, cultural, and political systems, violence derives its power and meaning. Examining instances of violence in these ways, within their wider contexts of power and meaning, is critical for a variety of reasons. First, it provides a foundation for understanding other forms of violence, such as interpersonal or gender-based violence; second, it reveals thatShow MoreRelatedFeminicide, Gender Violence Agains t Women5270 Words   |  22 Pageswomen in Juà ¡rez and it has certainly aided in the murders that have been and are still being committed against them. Overall, we see many inequalities between genders that in turn create subversive power hierarchies as described by researchers like Philippe Bourgois. This ï ¬â€šip-ï ¬â€šopping of gender roles within the workplace as well as domestically within the household opposing traditional notions of what men and women were supposed to do, we see systemic examples of gender-based violence. The underlyingRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesCollege Michael Cruz, San Jose State University Robert Cyr, Northwestern University Evelyn Dadzie, Clark Atlanta University Joseph Daly, Appalachian State University Denise Daniels, Seattle Pacific University Marie Dasborough, Oklahoma State University Nancy Da Silva, San Jose State University C hristine Day, Eastern Michigan University Emmeline de Pillis, University of Hawaii, Hilo Kathy Lund Dean, Idaho State University Roger Dean, Washington Lee University Robert DelCampo, University of New Mexico